PGS and PGD embryo diagnostics
Methods of embryo diagnostics have developed rapidly in recent years due to new research methods. The patients gain the most benefit from embryo diagnostics in the following cases:
- hereditary disease or abnormality causing foetal death, serious disease or developmental disorder (genetic mutation, chromosome translocation)
- several unsuccessful in vitro fertilisation treatments
- recurring miscarriages
- patient is over 35 years of age and in need of in vitro fertilisation
It is obvious that embryo diagnostics can be useful to all patients receiving in vitro fertilisation treatment. It has been found that in young women over 50% of seemingly normal embryos are in fact chromosomally aberrant. In women over 42 years of age, the proportion is over 80%. When a chromosomally healthy embryo is transferred into the uterus, the results are better regardless of age. This also reduces the probability of miscarriage and prevents unnecessary treatment by identifying aberrant embryos.
The sample for the examination is taken from a three-day-old embryo or on the fifth or sixth day from a blastocyst. The blastocyst phase is recommended as this allows the harvesting of multiple cells to increase the reliability of the results.
If the result is determined sufficiently early on, the embryo can be quickly transferred into the uterus. Normally, embryos examined in the blastocyst phase are frozen immediately after sampling and placed into the uterus at a later time. This procedure has shown the best pregnancy results.